Calophyllum inophyllum L.
Indian Laurel tree with great Potential for Biodiesel
inophyllum L. is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree that averages 8–20 m
(25–65 ft) in height with a broad spreading crown of irregular branches. The
tree supports a dense canopy of glossy, elliptical leaves, fragrant white
flowers, and large round nuts. It grows along coastal areas and adjacent
lowland forests, although it occasionally occurs inland at higher elevations.
It is native to east Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the South
Pacific. It has been widely planted throughout the tropics and is naturalized
in the main Hawaiian Islands. Calophyllum inophyllum L. is a useful tree for
coastal shelterbelts, windbreaks, and strand reforestation because it grows
well despite the wind, salt spray, drought, and occasional flooding common to
beach environments. It even withstands typhoons.
inophyllum L is a large tree of shorelines and coastal forests. It usually
grows 12–20 m (40–65 ft) in height, but open-grown trees can become wider than
they are tall, often leaning, with broad, spreading crowns. Trees growing along
the shoreline may reach out with trunks almost parallel to the ground. The tree
can often be recognized at a distance by its large, spread¬ing horizontal
bears clusters of 4–15 fragrant white flowers about 2.5 cm (1 in) across and
8–14 mm (0.3–0.6 in) long on long, sturdy stalks in leaf axils. There are 4–8
oblong petals. Trees may flower all year, but flowering is heaviest in late
spring/early summer and late fall in the northern hemisphere.
opposite leaves are dark green, shiny, and hairless with broadly elliptical
blades 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long and 6–9 cm (2.4–3.6 in) wide. Both the tip and
base of the leaves are rounded. Leaf veins run parallel to each other and perpendicular
to the midrib. The scientific name Calophyllum comes from the Greek words for
ball-shaped, light green fruits grow in clusters. Fruits are 2–5 cm (0.8–2 in)
in diameter. The skin, which turns yellow and then brown and wrinkled when the
fruit is ripe, covers the thin pulp, the shell, a corky inner layer, and a
single seed kernel. Fruits are usually borne twice a year.
large brown seed 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) in diameter is found in each fruit. Seeds
are prepared by cleaning off the skin and husk from the shell of the seed;
there are 100–200 seeds/kg , with shells intact but husks removed.
inophyllum L is native to tropical shores across the Pacific and Indian Oceans,
from Madagascar to Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands. The tree is common in
India, Indonesia, northern Australia, and the Philippines. Calophyllum
inophyllum L is native northwards to the Northern Marianas islands and the
Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan and westward throughout Polynesia except
Hawai‘i, where it was introduced by the early Polynesian settlers.
ENVIRONMENTAL PREFERENCES AND TOLERANCES
Calophyllum inophyllum L grows in warm
temperatures in wet or moderate conditions. It is not suited to high
elevations, cool areas, or very dry conditions.
Up to 800 m (2000 ft)
1000–5000 mm (40–200 in)
Calophyllum inophyllum L prefers climates with
summer, winter, or uniform rainfall patterns.
Dry season duration (consecutive months with
<_0mm [1.6 in] rainfall) 4–5 months
Calophyllum inophyllum L tolerates a wide range
of soils. It grows best in sandy well drained soils in coastal areas but will
tolerate clays, calcareous soils, and rocky soils.
It tolerates light to medium soils (sands, sandy
loams, loams, and sandy clay loams.
Freely draining as well as soils with impeded
drainage or seasonal water logging is acceptable.
Neutral to acid soils (pH 7.4–4.0)
It tolerates shallow and saline soils.
Calophyllum inophyllum L is a hardy tree of
tropical coastal areas that tolerates wind, salt spray, drought, and brief
periods of waterlogged soil. It does not tolerate much shade or cold weather.
Calophyllum inophyllum L can tolerate 4–5 months
of drought in its natural littoral and riparian environments.
Calophyllum inophyllum L prefers full sun, and
only light shade is tolerated.
Calophyllum inophyllum L is moderately tolerant
of wildfire, once the bark thickens.
Calophyllum inophyllum L grows only in warm
climates and does not tolerate frost.
Calophyllum inophyllum L tolerates occasional
water logging in coastal areas.
Salt spray and wind
Calophyllum inophyllum L grows in areas subject
to sea breezes and salt spray.
Calophyllum inophyllum L is moderately easy to
propagate by seed, and local seed sources are easily found in the Pacific
Islands. Germination and initial growth is slow, however, and seedlings should
be started 6 months before they are required. Once outplanted, seedlings are
hardy but slow growing. They prefer full sun and tolerate wind, salt spray, and
PLANTATION MANAGEMENT OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L TREE
The productive cultivation of Calophyllum
inophyllum L needs to be scientifically managed for better growth and
production. The growth and yield of the plant could be improved through
effective management practices. The enhanced cultivation technology and
improved inputs developed by CJP may provide plenty of biodiesel without
displacing food crop and without utilizing prime food land in terms of
sustainable farming techniques
key factors that can influence the oil yield of Calophyllum inophyllum L are:
- Quality of the soil
- RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION
- VAM INOCULATION
- Use of fertilizer
- Crop density
- High-quality grafting stock from superior
- Use of pesticide
carefully manages Calophyllum inophyllum L cultivation, with advanced crop
practices suitable to local soil, weather, pest, and disease conditions to
ensure the high amount of oil as we have developed enhanced technology with
- Planting materials & other inputs
- Crop Management
- Irrigation Management
- Fertilizer Management
- Pest & Diseases management.
- Harvesting Management
- Post harvest management
- And finally grading for further process
The key factors governing
profitability of large scale production are:
of high yielding varieties with suitable marketable quality
in a proper season, in compliance with the latest agro techniques
of post harvest management
CJP’s Researchers have developed standardized techniques
for growing Calophyllum inophyllum L on large scale. CJP
ensures Organic Calophyllum inophyllum L cultivation right from the land
preparation, crop management to production of end product. CJP’S “Calophyllum inophyllum L Cultivation Technology”
is available at an affordable Price
inophyllum Crop Information Growing & Care Instruction Manual and Monitoring
& management system
planting, looking after and harvesting plants is an important factor and it
requires a lot of knowledge, skill and techniques viz: the best planting season
to make the plant early matured, then an amount of seeds to be planted, an
irrigation & fertilization method, a
control method of weeds , investigate quality, yield, and degree of occurrence
of several troubles .
all biological organisms require care and attention, the need to draw Growing
Instructions was being felt by all concerned
keeping in view Various concerns and problems of a new Grower; CJP being “The
Centre of Excellence” has designed Calophyllum Inophyllum L Growing & Care
Instructions Manual with Monitoring & Management System Diary
on the basis of our own tried, tested, developed and experienced Plant
Propagation and Cultivation Technologies and Practices to help you grow a
Failsafe Calophyllum inophyllum L Fuel Farm
inophyllum L Growing & Care Instructions manual provides basic guidance for
the project developers to help ensure successful Calophyllum inophyllum L
planning, planting and maintenance are the key for growing flourishing plants.
Simply putting a plant in the ground is not enough. Careful thought must be
given to the purpose of the planting, location of the planting and how the Calophyllum
inophyllum L will be cared for once they are in the ground.
properly planted and maintained plant will grow faster and live longer than one
that is incorrectly planted. This booklet is organized as a step-by-step
checklist of fundamentals to help you with your Calophyllum inophyllum L
have sincerely tried to put all steps in nutshell and hope it will be a useful
tool in growing your Biodiesel Plantation
inophyllum publications are available
has specifically developed and designed a unique kit for Calophyllum inophyllum
L plantation and crop care for 1 hectare called: “Agricultural Extension Kit” –
a key to your fuel farm “just enables & encourages the farmers/ new growers
to start the Biodiesel crop cultivation in a right and prefect manner by
adopting the concept of “sustainable agriculture”.
inophyllum Starter Kit:
Calophyllum inophyllum Agri- Extension Kit contains
SRIPHL CIO3 Elite planting
stock for cultivation in 1 ha
an easy- to- follow
growing and crop care instructions manual
a very typical
monitoring and management diary
Inophyllum Elite Seeds
2,10,20,50 KG Bags
QUANTITY: 3.0 tons by sea, 2 kg by air
time: 30 days After Payment
TERM: 100 % Advance
sanitary charge: included
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS & BUSINESS PLANS
- Yields of fruits for oil depend on the age and
size of the tree and the location.
- Annual yields of 20–100 kg/tree
- Trees begin to bear significantly after 4–5
- The nut kernels contain 50–70% oil
- 400 trees are planted per hectare and each tree
produces 11 kg of oil.
- Oil yield to be 4,400 kg/ha
detailed cost benefit ratio obtain CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM BIODIESEL BUSINESS
Ready Built Business Plans
built Biodiesel business plans are drawn in universal scenario based on optimum
conditions for growing the biodiesel crop worldwide and on crop specific
science, agronomy and economy in wider context
business plan are available for 20 hectare, 100 hectare and 500 hectare as per
details on page http://www.jatrophaworld.org/biodiesel_business_plan_95.html
We recommend carrying out Feasibility Study Report
for project size of 5000 hectares or more to determine the land identification
and suitability of growing the Calophyllum inophyllum
Complete & Comprehensive Biodiesel Business Plan
We make the integration of our experience, expertise
and professional knowledge with your information and formulate customized
biodiesel business plan. In undertaking this Technical & Financial Inputs
assessment, we shall have relied on Primary inputs supplied by you, our IPR
knowledge & research experiences and expertise in the field; on industry
experts and secondary information derived from recognized public sources and
via CJP's database and multi-client reports.
For formulation and creation of customized Calophyllum
inophyllum biodiesel business plan for the size of 1000 hectare or more kindly
contact to Director Business Development for detailed quote for Calophyllum
inophyllum : the 2ndgeneration biodiesel crop