Jojoba: A Potential Desert Oil Crop

jojobafield_cjpJojoba, [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] is a new oil-producing industrial crop that has attracted much attention in recent years. Jojoba oil is unique in nature. No other plant is known to produce oil like jojobas. It is used in the cosmetic, medical, pharmaceutical, food products, manufacturing, and automotive industries (as lubricant). And it is a renewable energy resource. It is remarkable to note that, in spite of the variability in size or where grown, each jojoba seed contains an average of 50% pure oil by volume. Jojoba is native to the semiarid regions of southern Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico. Now Jojoba is being cultivated in Israel and Rajasthan, India to provide a renewable source of unique high-quality oil. Much of the interest in jojoba worldwide is the result of the plant's ability to survive in a harsh desert environment. Jojoba can be grown as an oil-producing cash crop. Jojoba is very drought-resistant and can be grown on marginal lands without replacing any existing crops. Fully mature shrubs or trees can reach a height of 15 feet with a potential natural life span of 100 to 200 years depending on environmental conditions. For optimum production, the crop needs irrigation, care, and a good cultivar.

 

The arid lands of Rajasthan are all set to usher in a revolution in Indian agriculture, with planned large-scale cultivation of the exotic jojoba plant. Rajasthan government has allotted 110 hectare of wastelands including 70 hectare at Fatehpur in Sikar district and 40 hectare at Dhand in Jaipur district for jojoba plantation.   Jojoba plantation project was formulated in 1995 for a period of five years, with a revised financial outlay of around 670000 US$ to be met by central assistance. Jojoba in the country is now being grown in an estimated area of about 500 hectare and the area is increasing every year. The production estimate for this plantation is 25 million tonne. About 90 per cent of the jojoba cultivation is in Rajasthan.

 

Our technocrats believe that jojoba oil shows a lot of promise as an alternative source of fuel. It releases a lot of energy when it burns. The driving force to find such fuel source stems from the need to find an alternative fuel to petroleum oil. In addition to this, the jojoba renewable nature is attractive and can produce less pollution. Jojoba oil appears to be promising, also with promising scope for cultivation in the relatively hot weather Considering Jojoba’s potential as an oilseed feedstock for biodiesel, CJP has honor to establish this untapped resource as alternative source for Bio- Diesel industry of future.

About the Plant

Jojoba is a perennial, dioecious, evergreen shrub or small tree that lives under diverse environmental conditions. It has an extensive and deep root system and requires little care if maximum seed production is not desired. Jojoba is valuable as a soil conservation and landscape plant for highway shoulders, city parks, and other places that cannot afford much care. Jojoba (pronounced ho-HO-ba) is being cultivated to provide a renewable source of unique high-quality oil. Jojoba is a woody evergreen shrub that typically grows to a height of 10 to 15 ft. Leaves are opposite, oval or lanceolate, gray green, and have a waxy cuticle that reduces moisture loss. The plant develops one or a few long tap roots (up to 40 ft) that can supply water and minerals from far below the soil surface. Jojoba does not shed its leaves with the change in seasons.

 

Common Name:

Common Name:  Jojoba

Latin Name: Simmondsia chinensis 

Family:  Simmondsiaceae

Other Names:  goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush.

BOTANIC DESCRIPTION

Simmondsia chinensis is a leafy, xerophytic, woody evergreen dioecious shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that grows to a height of 0.5–1 m in the wild, occasionally to 6 m tall with taproots to 12 m long.

Leaves opposite, oval or lanceolate, grey green or bluish-green, leathery, oblong, opposite, 2.5–3.5 cm long and contain special tissue with a high concentration of phenol compounds.

Flowers apetalous, dioecious; the male flowers are yellow, larger, and occur in clusters with 10–12 stamens per flower; female flowers small, usually solitary in the axils or in clusters at the nodes, pale green with 5 greenish sepals, soft and hairy.

Fruits green capsules, ovoid, usually dehiscent with 1-3 seeds. Seed peanut-sized, dark brown, the endosperm scanty or absent

The jojoba plant is dioecious. The gender of jojoba plants can only be discerned from their flowers. When planted from seeds, jojoba plants can take up to three years to produce flowers. The female plants produce seed from flowers pollinated by the male plants. Seed production is generally limited until the fourth year of growth.

DISTRIBUTION

Jojoba is a native to the Sonoran Desert. Most natural populations exist only inside a quadrangle with Riverside (California), Globe (Arizona), Guaymas (Sonora, Mexico), and Cabo San Lucas (Baja California, Mexico) as its four corners, and comprise about 100,000 square miles between latitudes 25° and 34° North. These disjunctive jojoba populations occur from sea level to about 1,500 m altitude on coarse

Environment Requirements:

A. Climate:

The plant is drought resistant and to some extent also salt-resistant, ranging from warm temperate desert (with little or no frost) to thorn through tropical desert forest life zones. It grows best where the annual rainfall exceeds 300 mm, but does exist where less than 125 mm occur. Jojoba requires the most water during late winter and early spring.

It tolerates full sun and temperatures ranging from 0-47°C. Mature shrubs tolerate temperatures as low as -10°C, but seedlings are sensitive to light frosts just below freezing. Frost may not damage taller plants to the same degree, but it can reduce yield. Jojoba is very tolerant of high temperatures.

B. Soil:

Soil texture is important as jojoba grows best in sandy or decomposed granite or rocky soils and slowest in heavy clay soils such as adobe. Even if the fertility of the soil is marginal, jojoba is still able to produce well without the use of fertilizers

 

BIOPHYSICAL LIMITS

Altitude: 0-1500 m

Mean annual temperature: 12-35ºC

Mean annual rainfall: 200-1100 mm

Soil type: Jojoba is usually restricted to well-drained, coarse, sandy or gravelly soils, well-aerated desert soils that are neutral to alkaline, with an abundance of phosphorus and pH of 7.3 to 8.2.

Agronomy:Jojoba Farming: CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY 

 Cjp_Jojoba_JO03Rc ™  Rooted Cutting sapling CJP_Jojoba_JO03Rc ™  Rooted Cutting sapling FAILSAFE JOJOBA FARM CJPJojoba has the distinction of being the domesticated plant successfully in desert of Rajasthan, India. The methods used by jojoba farmers in the past have been varied, as there were no real records of the performance of cultivated plants in existence. Subsequent research, however, has led to a greater understanding of the classic farming requirements for jojoba.

Jojoba has very promising scope for cultivation in the desert even in the relatively hot weather. Its nature withstands the hot weather in summer, warm weather in winter, low fertility of soil and low water resources. It needs less than one quarter the amount of water needed for olives with great ability to withstand the high salt in the soil. The payback for planting Jojoba is encouraging. To be used as fuel it needs to be cultivated in huge amounts which are easy in desert land in many countries.

Soil texture is important as jojoba grows best in sandy or decomposed granite or rocky soils and slowest in heavy clay soils such as adobe. Even if the fertility of the soil is marginal, jojoba is still able to produce well without the use of fertilizers. However, jojoba plants kept in containers seem to do better with some fertilization.

Irrigation systems are a must when establishing jojoba plantations whether by planting seeds or seedlings. The plants seem to do well on their own after two years of intensive watering in early winter and spring when the jojoba plant maximally utilizes water for growth. This watering period is a plus for the jojoba farmer as jojoba's water requirements will not conflict with the watering requirements for traditional crops. Under ideal conditions of soil, water and sun, the tap root will grow an inch a day; within two years the roots should reach the level of the aquifer thus enabling sufficient growth for seed production without supplemental watering.

In order to maximize production, it would seem advantageous to plant rooted cuttings from sexed plants which are known high producers or known to have seeds with high oil content. Rooting the cuttings takes a little bit of technical knowhow but it would be worthwhile to have a plantation with 90% to 95% female plants, leaving the 5% or 10% males to produce adequate pollen for all the female flowers.

Yield Potential and Performance Results:

FULL WITH FRUITS JOJOBAJojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth or fifth year after planting. Seed yields in natural stands of jojoba range from a few seeds to as much as 5 Kg of clean, dry seed per plant. Production of seed varies greatly from plant to plant in a stand and from year to year for a particular plant.

Currently, the average yield of commercial Plantations that were established with selected higher yielding clones is capable of producing 1 to 11 tons from 7th to 15th year per ha .









Yield: Jojoba

serial no.

TIME

PRODUCTION/ PLANT

PRODUCTION 2250 PLANTS/hectare

1

1st Year

Nil

Nil

2

2nd Year

Nil

Nil

3

3rd Year

50

112.5

4

4th Year

100

225

5

5th Year

200

450

6

6th Year

350

787.5

7

7th Year

500

1125

8

8th Year

750

1687.5

9

9th Year

1000

2250

10

10th Year

1500

3375

11

11th year

2000

4500

12

12th year

2500

5625

13

13th Year

3000

6750

14

14th year

4000

9000

15

15th year

5000

11250

 

TOTAL

20950

47137.5

Above maintained production is expected, can vary according to climate conditions.

CULTIVATION OF JOJOBA BY SCIENTIFIC METHOD

  • Selection of land
  • Climate: -
  • Seedbed Preparation
  • Seeding Date
  • Method and Rate of Seeding
  • Variety Selection
  • Preparation of land
  • Plantation
  • Irrigation
  • Manure and fertilizer
  • Plantation and precaution
  • Male and female Ratio
  • Method for obtaining fruit
  • Inter crops
  • Weed Control
  • Diseases and Their Control
  • Insects and Other Predators and Their Control
  • Harvesting
  • Drying and Storage

CJP carefully manages Jojoba Plant cultivation, with advanced crop practices suitable to local soil, weather, pest, and disease conditions to ensure the high amount of oil as we have developed enhanced technology with regards to:-

  • Planting materials & other inputs
  • Crop Management
  • Irrigation Management
  • Fertilizer Management
  • Pest & Diseases management.
  • Harvesting Management
  • Post harvest management
  • And finally grading for further process

The key factors governing profitability of large scale production are:

it is assumed that jojoba is grown under conditions which are conducive to commercial yields. Frost is a limiting factor. Similarly, adverse rainfall and temperature conditions can limit the commercial production of the crop. Therefore, while it is evident that jojoba may survive in some more marginal areas, it is equally as evident that it is not likely to produce commercial yields.

CJP’s Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Jojoba Plant on large scale. CJP ensures Organic Jojoba plantation right from the land preparation, crop management to production of end product. CJP Jojoba oil Farms are under the vigilant supervision of agronomists, who make sure that the latest and best breed of Jojoba Plant, is being planted. However, we keep a close watch on the research results of Jojoba Plant breeding by studying thousands of Jojoba Plant variants, identifying and collecting the best sources of high-quality. This not only removed the uncertainty from the yield, it also provides multiple harvests within a few months. Accordingly, the enhanced variety of Jojoba with regards to seed yield and oil yield and the enhanced Jojoba Cultivation techniques may ensure proper and profitable production of the OIL CROP providing early fruition and flowering

CJP is happy to announce the market release of the Oil Crop Jojoba Cultivation Technology at an affordable Price

Jojoba Crop Information Growing & Care Instruction Manual and Monitoring & management system

jojoba crop guidejojoba crop managementThe planting, looking after and harvesting plants is an important factor and it requires a lot of knowledge, skill and techniques viz: the best planting season to make the plant early matured, then an amount of seeds to be planted, an irrigation &  fertilization method, a control method of weeds , investigate quality, yield, and degree of occurrence of several troubles .

As all biological organisms require care and attention, the need to draw Growing Instructions was being felt by all concerned

Therefore keeping in view Various concerns and problems of a new Grower; CJP being “The Centre of Excellence” has designed Jojoba Growing & Care Instructions Manual with Monitoring & Management System Diary on the basis of our own tried, tested, developed and experienced Plant Propagation and Cultivation Technologies and Practices to help you grow a Failsafe Jojoba Farm

The Jojoba Growing & Care Instructions manual provides basic guidance for the project developers to help ensure successful Jojoba planting projects.

Proper planning, planting and maintenance are the key for growing flourishing plants. Simply putting a plant in the ground is not enough. Careful thought must be given to the purpose of the planting, location of the planting and how the Jojoba will be cared for once they are in the ground.

A properly planted and maintained plant will grow faster and live longer than one that is incorrectly planted. This booklet is organized as a step-by-step checklist of fundamentals to help you with your Jojoba planting project

We have sincerely tried to put all steps in nutshell and hope it will be a useful tool in growing your Biodiesel Plantation

Both the Jojoba publications are available    

Order Just Know

Agricultural Extension Kit

CJP has specifically developed and designed a unique kit for JojobaL plantation and crop care for 1 hectare called: “Agricultural Extension Kit” – a key to your fuel farm “just enables & encourages the farmers/ new growers to start the Biodiesel crop cultivation in a right and prefect manner by adopting the concept of “sustainable agriculture”.

Jojoba Starter Kit:

Jojoba Agri- Extension Kit contains

1.     SRIPHL JJ03 Elite planting stock for cultivation 0.5 acre

2.   an easy- to- follow growing and crop care instructions manual

3.   a very typical monitoring and management diary

FARM FRESH JOJOBAJojoba: Class 1 Fresh seeds with highest oil content

Type

JOJOBA

Style

Natural

Cultivation Type

Organic

Purity

100%

Moisture

>8%

Place of Origin

Rajasthan, India

Brand Name

hohoba

Model Number

2012

Hybrid

No

TERMS & CONDITIONS

      Packing: 2,10,20,50 KG Bags

      Shipment: FOB/CIF

      Minimum QUANTITY: 3.0 tons by sea, 2 kg by air

      PRICE: quote?  

      Working time:  30 days After Payment

      ALL PAYMENT TERM:100 % Advance 

      Phyto sanitary charge: included

 Order Just Know

For Jojoba Failsafe Farm

JO03Rc™ Identified Elite Class 1 Jojoba Rooted Cuttings

With Scientific advancement CJP has selectively bred certain high yielding jojoba plants and developed our identified high-yielding jojoba Rooted Cutting Plants for creating FAIL SAFE JOJOBA FARM withStandard Package of Practices (SOP) enable JO03Rc ™  Rooted Cutting sapling to enhance productivity to achieve greater yields over the lifetime of the plantation with the right crop inputs and management

Order Just Know

An Economic Evaluation of Jojoba Farming

 

Economics of Production and Markets:

Successful long-term production of jojoba depends on improved yield and a strong market. Industry is typically hesitant to invest in new technology involving an agriculturally produced resource until a steady and continued supply of that resource can be demonstrated. The value of jojoba oil as an alternative industrial oil with multiple applications and as a replacement for non-renewable fossil petroleum has been demonstrated.

 

The jojoba bush has been proposed as a highly profitable new crop being grown in India, in Australia, in Egypt and in America. It can be grown in arid areas yields and growing costs to make estimates of the probability of jojoba growing -producing particular levels of profit needs to be examined in depth.

The cost of development of jojoba plantation including micro irrigation is  Rs US$ 2000 per hectare. The cost of production of one kg of jojoba in US is Rs 2.5$, in Israel it is Rs 1.3$ and in India it is 0.5$. This low cost of production in the country gives it a competitive edge.

As the jojoba plant does not reach full maturity for about ten years and can survive for more than 100 years, the establishment of a jojoba plantation is a long-term investment which lends itself to cost-benefit analysis. Jojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth or fifth year after planting. Jojoba is a multiyear crop by plantation of this the farmer is saved from repeated sowing. The crop of it does not need dugging and watch and word. According to the opinion of agriculture specialist it can be cultivated with low water, fertilizer and pesticide. Neither stray cattle nor pet cattle eat its plant. Its good production gives very high income to the farmers as compare to the traditional farming

 

ECONOMICS: JOJOBA

 

Serial No.

Time

Production/ Plant

Production 2250 Plants/Hectare

Cost Of Crop @ US$ 3/Kg.

Crop Cost

Income

1

1st Year

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

2

2nd Year

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

3

3rd Year

50

112.5

$338

$2,000

-$1,663

4

4th Year

100

225

$675

$140

$535

5

5th Year

200

450

$1,350

$100

$1,250

6

6th Year

350

787.5

$2,363

$100

$2,263

7

7th Year

500

1125

$3,375

$200

$3,175

8

8th Year

750

1687.5

$5,063

$250

$4,813

9

9th Year

1000

2250

$6,750

$300

$6,450

10

10th Year

1500

3375

$10,125

$350

$9,775

11

11th year

2000

4500

$13,500

$400

$13,100

12

12th year

2500

5625

$16,875

$450

$16,425

13

13th Year

3000

6750

$20,250

$500

$19,750

14

14th year

4000

9000

$27,000

$500

$26,500

15

15th year

5000

11250

$33,750

$500

$33,250

TOTAL

20950

47137.5

$141,413

$5,790

$135,623

 

JOJOBA BUSINESS PLAN

Sample/ Ready Built Business Plans

Sample/ready built Biodiesel business plans are drawn in universal scenario based on optimum conditions for growing the biodiesel crop worldwide and on crop specific science, agronomy and economy in wider context

 Sample/readymade business plan are available for 20 hectare, 100 hectare and 500 hectare as per details on page   http://www.jatrophaworld.org/biodiesel_business_plan_95.html

Feasibility Study Report

We recommend carrying out Feasibility Study Report for project size of 5000 hectares or more to determine the land identification and suitability of growing the Jojoba

Customized, Complete & Comprehensive Business Plan

jojoba business planWe make the integration of our experience, expertise and professional knowledge with your information and formulate customized biodiesel business plan. In undertaking this Technical & Financial Inputs assessment, we shall have relied on Primary inputs supplied by you, our IPR knowledge & research experiences and expertise in the field; on industry experts and secondary information derived from recognized public sources and via CJP's database and multi-client reports.

CJP can help clients identify the needs, opportunities and solutions of their local, regional and national markets. By identifying these needs and providing management direction, CJP can help in creating a perfect business plan in order to develop and manage an effective and successful biodiesel facility. The most critical component of any business plan is the pro forma, an educated view or projection of what the performance of a company is capable of, given a specific set of assumptions and conditions. CJP has been involved in identifying these needs for specific projects for a number of years and can help develop a realistic and obtainable:

  • Income Statement
  • Balance Sheet
  • Capital Budget
  • Cash Flow
  • Break-even Analysis
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Assumptions Governing the Projections

These projections will be valuable in determining feasibility of the project, securing financing, attracting investment and guiding management so that the company can reach its full potential.For detailed Cost-Benefit Analysis of Jojoba Growing and For a detailed quote for a complete and comprehensive Jojoba Farming Business Plan from Farming to fuel, kindly mail to jojobaworld@gmail.com  


Jojoba Energy Project Services (JOEP)

Based on our proprietary knowledge and extensive experience gained we have developed and enhanced a wide range of Products just to ensure A FAILSAFE JOJOBA FARM  

 

C J P has developed a set of JOEP  services with access to our own supply chain intellectual property rights (IPR) and exclusive expertise with technological background and experiences in the field for creation of your ambitious Green  Energy Farm.

JOEP SERVICE 1: (preliminary stage)

Land identification is a pre-requisite to development of a Project plan and to meet this requirement Pre-feasibility Study is required to be getting carried out from the competent experienced agency. We do carry out the Pre-feasibility study report for choosing the best location for your green energy Project

 

 

JOEP SERVICE 2: (preparatory stage)

The formulation of business plan needs in- depth specialists from each field. CJP can offer nonfood renewable energy projects with many plans, resources and proven profitable models. Our specialty is business planning with the focus on high productivity and profitability. Getting the best business plan formation mail to us

 

JOEP SERVICE 3: (pre-plantation stage)

Getting the best planting stock/material is the most important KEY Strategy to ensure a failsafe farm. We have developed best variety called “SRIPHL MO3 “with more seeds and more oil per ha with flowering and fruiting.

 

We provide identified high-yielding jojoba Rooted Cutting Plants of superior genotype

 

 

JOEP SERVICE 4: (Plantation stage)

Adopting Best Practices in Agronomy

In order to achieve commercial perfection, it is crucial to understand the crop’s requirements, predict its possible interactions with the environment & develop packages of practices for industrial cultivation

That's why CJP is providing low-cost Crop Cultivation Technology & Crop Care Technology which includes

  • Improved Agricultural Practices
  • Varietal Improvements
  • Enhanced cultural practices
  • Pest & Disease Control
  • Intercropping
  • Going "Green" with the use of Microbial fertilizers
  • Fine-tuning practices to soil type, environmental conditions & labor

 

For further details kindly mail or contact

Assistant Director, CJP
Tele: +91-9413334600

 


 

© 2004- 2014 BBA, Centre for Jatropha Promotion & Biodiesel. All Rights Reserved

 
  Site Map