Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Indian Laurel tree with great Potential for Biodiesel

Calophyllum inophyllum L. is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree that averages 8–20 m (25–65 ft) in height with a broad spreading crown of irregular branches. The tree supports a dense canopy of glossy, elliptical leaves, fragrant white flowers, and large round nuts. It grows along coastal areas and adjacent lowland forests, although it occasionally occurs inland at higher elevations. It is native to east Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific. It has been widely planted throughout the tropics and is naturalized in the main Hawaiian Islands. Calophyllum inophyllum L. is a useful tree for coastal shelterbelts, windbreaks, and strand reforestation because it grows well despite the wind, salt spray, drought, and occasional flooding common to beach environments. It even withstands typhoons.


BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

Preferred scientific name

Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Size

Calophyllum inophyllum L is a large tree of shorelines and coastal forests. It usually grows 12–20 m (40–65 ft) in height, but open-grown trees can become wider than they are tall, often leaning, with broad, spreading crowns. Trees growing along the shoreline may reach out with trunks almost parallel to the ground. The tree can often be recognized at a distance by its large, spread¬ing horizontal branches.

Flowers

It bears clusters of 4–15 fragrant white flowers about 2.5 cm (1 in) across and 8–14 mm (0.3–0.6 in) long on long, sturdy stalks in leaf axils. There are 4–8 oblong petals. Trees may flower all year, but flowering is heaviest in late spring/early summer and late fall in the northern hemisphere.

Leaves

The opposite leaves are dark green, shiny, and hairless with broadly elliptical blades 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long and 6–9 cm (2.4–3.6 in) wide. Both the tip and base of the leaves are rounded. Leaf veins run parallel to each other and perpendicular to the midrib. The scientific name Calophyllum comes from the Greek words for “beautiful leaf.”

Fruit

The ball-shaped, light green fruits grow in clusters. Fruits are 2–5 cm (0.8–2 in) in diameter. The skin, which turns yellow and then brown and wrinkled when the fruit is ripe, covers the thin pulp, the shell, a corky inner layer, and a single seed kernel. Fruits are usually borne twice a year.

Seeds

One large brown seed 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) in diameter is found in each fruit. Seeds are prepared by cleaning off the skin and husk from the shell of the seed; there are 100–200 seeds/kg , with shells intact but husks removed.

Distribution

Calophyllum inophyllum L is native to tropical shores across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, from Madagascar to Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands. The tree is common in India, Indonesia, northern Australia, and the Philippines. Calophyllum inophyllum L is native northwards to the Northern Marianas islands and the Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan and westward throughout Polynesia except Hawai‘i, where it was introduced by the early Polynesian settlers.

ENVIRONMENTAL PREFERENCES AND TOLERANCES

Climate

Calophyllum inophyllum L grows in warm temperatures in wet or moderate conditions. It is not suited to high elevations, cool areas, or very dry conditions.

Elevation range

Up to 800 m (2000 ft) 

Mean annual rainfall

1000–5000 mm (40–200 in)

Rainfall pattern

Calophyllum inophyllum L prefers climates with summer, winter, or uniform rainfall patterns.

Dry season duration (consecutive months with <_0mm [1.6 in] rainfall)  4–5 months

Mean annual temperature

18–33°C (64–91°F)

Minimum temperature tolerated

8°C (46°F)

Soils

Calophyllum inophyllum L tolerates a wide range of soils. It grows best in sandy well drained soils in coastal areas but will tolerate clays, calcareous soils, and rocky soils.

Soil texture

It tolerates light to medium soils (sands, sandy loams, loams, and sandy clay loams.

Soil drainage

Freely draining as well as soils with impeded drainage or seasonal water logging is acceptable.

Soil acidity

Neutral to acid soils (pH 7.4–4.0)

It tolerates shallow and saline soils.

Tolerances

Calophyllum inophyllum L is a hardy tree of tropical coastal areas that tolerates wind, salt spray, drought, and brief periods of waterlogged soil. It does not tolerate much shade or cold weather.

Drought

Calophyllum inophyllum L can tolerate 4–5 months of drought in its natural littoral and riparian environments.

Full sun

Calophyllum inophyllum L prefers full sun, and only light shade is tolerated.

Fire

Calophyllum inophyllum L is moderately tolerant of wildfire, once the bark thickens.

Frost

Calophyllum inophyllum L grows only in warm climates and does not tolerate frost.

Water logging

Calophyllum inophyllum L tolerates occasional water logging in coastal areas.

Salt spray and wind

Calophyllum inophyllum L grows in areas subject to sea breezes and salt spray.

PROPAGATION

Calophyllum inophyllum L is moderately easy to propagate by seed, and local seed sources are easily found in the Pacific Islands. Germination and initial growth is slow, however, and seedlings should be started 6 months before they are required. Once outplanted, seedlings are hardy but slow growing. They prefer full sun and tolerate wind, salt spray, and drought.

 

PLANTATION MANAGEMENT OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L TREE

CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

The productive cultivation of Calophyllum inophyllum L needs to be scientifically managed for better growth and production. The growth and yield of the plant could be improved through effective management practices. The enhanced cultivation technology and improved inputs developed by CJP may provide plenty of biodiesel without displacing food crop and without utilizing prime food land in terms of sustainable farming techniques

The key factors that can influence the oil yield of Calophyllum inophyllum L are:

  • Climate
  • Quality of the soil
  • RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION
  • VAM INOCULATION
  • Irrigation
  • Weeding
  • Pruning
  • Use of fertilizer
  • Crop density
  • High-quality grafting stock from superior Genotype
  • Use of pesticide
  • Inter-cropping
  • Harvesting

CJP carefully manages Calophyllum inophyllum L cultivation, with advanced crop practices suitable to local soil, weather, pest, and disease conditions to ensure the high amount of oil as we have developed enhanced technology with regards to:-

  • Planting materials & other inputs
  • Crop Management
  • Irrigation Management
  • Fertilizer Management
  • Pest & Diseases management.
  • Harvesting Management
  • Post harvest management
  • And finally grading for further process

 The key factors governing profitability of large scale production are:

  • Selection of high yielding varieties with suitable marketable quality
  • Sowing in a proper season, in compliance with the latest agro techniques
  • Pest control
  • Adoption of post harvest management

 

CJP’s Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Calophyllum inophyllum L on large scale. CJP ensures Organic Calophyllum inophyllum L cultivation right from the land preparation, crop management to production of end product. CJP’S “Calophyllum inophyllum L Cultivation Technology” is available at an affordable Price

Calophyllum inophyllum Crop Information Growing & Care Instruction Manual and Monitoring & management system

calophyllum bookThe planting, looking after and harvesting plants is an important factor and it requires a lot of knowledge, skill and techniques viz: the best planting season to make the plant early matured, then an amount of seeds to be planted, an irrigation &  fertilization method, a control method of weeds , investigate quality, yield, and degree of occurrence of several troubles .

As all biological organisms require care and attention, the need to draw Growing Instructions was being felt by all concerned

Therefore keeping in view Various concerns and problems of a new Grower; CJP being “The Centre of Excellence” has designed Calophyllum Inophyllum L Growing & Care Instructions Manual with Monitoring & Management System Diary on the basis of our own tried, tested, developed and experienced Plant Propagation and Cultivation calophyllum managementTechnologies and Practices to help you grow a Failsafe Calophyllum inophyllum L Fuel Farm

The Calophyllum inophyllum L Growing & Care Instructions manual provides basic guidance for the project developers to help ensure successful Calophyllum inophyllum L planting projects.

Proper planning, planting and maintenance are the key for growing flourishing plants. Simply putting a plant in the ground is not enough. Careful thought must be given to the purpose of the planting, location of the planting and how the Calophyllum inophyllum L will be cared for once they are in the ground.

A properly planted and maintained plant will grow faster and live longer than one that is incorrectly planted. This booklet is organized as a step-by-step checklist of fundamentals to help you with your Calophyllum inophyllum L planting project

We have sincerely tried to put all steps in nutshell and hope it will be a useful tool in growing your Biodiesel Plantation

Both the Calophyllum inophyllum publications are available    

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Agricultural Extension Kit

CJP has specifically developed and designed a unique kit for Calophyllum inophyllum L plantation and crop care for 1 hectare called: “Agricultural Extension Kit” – a key to your fuel farm “just enables & encourages the farmers/ new growers to start the Biodiesel crop cultivation in a right and prefect manner by adopting the concept of “sustainable agriculture”.

Calophyllum inophyllum Starter Kit:

Calophyllum inophyllum Agri- Extension Kit contains

1.     SRIPHL CIO3 Elite planting stock for cultivation in 1 ha

2.   an easy- to- follow growing and crop care instructions manual

3.   a very typical monitoring and management diary

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Calophyllum Inophyllum Elite Seeds

Type

caalophyllum

Style

Natural

Cultivation Type

Common

Purity

100%

Moisture

<8%

Place of Origin

 India

Brand Name

CI

Model Number

2012

Hybrid

No

TERMS & CONDITIONS

      Packing: 2,10,20,50 KG Bags

      Shipment: FOB/CIF

      Minimum QUANTITY: 3.0 tons by sea, 2 kg by air

      PRICE: quote?  

      Working time:  30 days After Payment

      ALL PAYMENT TERM: 100 % Advance 

      Phyto sanitary charge: included

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ECONOMIC ANALYSIS & BUSINESS PLANS

  • Yields of fruits for oil depend on the age and size of the tree and the location.
  • Annual yields of 20–100 kg/tree
  • Trees begin to bear significantly after 4–5 years.
  • The nut kernels contain 50–70% oil 
  • 400 trees are planted per hectare and each tree produces 11 kg of oil.
  • Oil yield to be 4,400 kg/ha

For detailed cost benefit ratio obtain CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM BIODIESEL BUSINESS PLAN

Sample/ Ready Built Business Plans

Sample/ready built Biodiesel business plans are drawn in universal scenario based on optimum conditions for growing the biodiesel crop worldwide and on crop specific science, agronomy and economy in wider context

Sample/readymade business plan are available for 20 hectare, 100 hectare and 500 hectare as per details on page   http://www.jatrophaworld.org/biodiesel_business_plan_95.html

Feasibility Study Report

We recommend carrying out Feasibility Study Report for project size of 5000 hectares or more to determine the land identification and suitability of growing the Calophyllum inophyllum

Customized, Complete & Comprehensive Biodiesel Business Plan

calophyllum biodiesel business planWe make the integration of our experience, expertise and professional knowledge with your information and formulate customized biodiesel business plan. In undertaking this Technical & Financial Inputs assessment, we shall have relied on Primary inputs supplied by you, our IPR knowledge & research experiences and expertise in the field; on industry experts and secondary information derived from recognized public sources and via CJP's database and multi-client reports.

For  formulation and creation of customized Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel business plan for the size of 1000 hectare or more kindly contact to Director Business Development for detailed quote for Calophyllum inophyllum : the 2ndgeneration biodiesel crop

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For further details kindly mail to moringabiodiesel@gmail.com   or contact

Assistant Director , CJP
Tele: +91-9413334600



 

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